A blackhead, medically-known as an open comedone, is a hair follicle or pore that’s clogged with a mixture of dead skin cells and sebum–an oily substance naturally secreted by your skin.
Blackheads are non-inflammatory acne lesions. When follicles become clogged with dead skin cells or oil, a blackhead is the result,” says Palmer.
Blackheads can occur when sebum produced by your pores is exposed to oxygen. Sebum darkens during the oxidation process and creates a dark spot on your skin, hence the name ‘blackhead.’
“Blackheads appear when hair follicles become clogged with dirt or oil." Blackheads appear when hair follicles become clogged with dirt or oil. Although blackheads are often most noticeable on your nose, they can appear all over your body. So, now that you know what blackheads are, how do you get rid of them?
Blackheads vs. Other Acne Types
Acne and blackheads are a specific mild-acne type. Blackheads show up on your face, primarily where there is a higher concentration of oil glands. This includes the forehead, nose, and chin. They can also appear on your neck, back, and chest areas. Unfortunately, blackheads can show up just about anywhere! So, what are some acne-types to look out for?
Whiteheads vs. Blackheads
According to Palmer, “A blackhead is a plug of dead skin cells and sebum that is discolored. It is also known as a comedone (actual name). A whitehead is a closed comedone. A blocked pore that stays open is a blackhead, while a pore that closes up is called a whitehead.” Another distinction is that blackheads are less irritated, while whiteheads can be in an irritated flared state. The irritation is associated with the infected state of the whitehead clogged pore due to the proliferation of acne bacteria. Blackheads are less irritated and almost dormant.
Sebaceous Filaments vs. Blackheads
According to Palmer, “Both sebaceous filaments and blackheads are actually types of pore clogs, but they are distinct in that sebaceous filaments are normally the color of your skin or have a grayish tint and are usually found in a bunch, while blackheads appear here and there.”
Blackheads vs. Clogged Pores
Unfortunately, those with oily skin tend to suffer more from these acne types. Oily skin is more prone to experience clogged pores, which causes bacteria to thrive; leading to whiteheads, blackheads, and papules all known as types of acne. Help treat both blackheads and clogged pores by focusing on getting rid of oily skin.
What Causes Blackheads?
Blackheads are caused when sebum secreting pores in the skin are blocked. Palmer explains, “Skin follicles typically contain one hair and a sebaceous gland that produces oil.” It might sound (gross?) counterintuitive, but this oil helps keep your skin soft and hydrated so it’s definitely a good oil to have! But where does it all go wrong? From dirty phones to an intense spin class, your lifestyle and genetics can easily affect your skin. If your skin is acting up, take a look at this list to see if any of these factors are at the root of your skin problems:
Dirt, oil, and debris build up. “The primary culprit is actually pore clog accumulation which can be dead skin cells, sebum and even makeup,” Palmer explains.
Excessive sweating from exercise, heat, or stress can cause pores to go into overdrive. Specifically, for those that sweat and workout if they tend to under-cleanse their skin after working out, then residue and skin grime can back up in pores. There is evidence that supports sweating while working out is good for the skin, helping to purge pores and boost sluggish skin metabolism. If you’re strapped for time after a workout, give your face a quick once over with a charcoal micelle water to clean off excess sweat and grime fast!
Hair care products can also interact with facial skin and lead to clogged pores. Prevent hair products from messing with your skin by keeping hair off your face during the day and by cleaning your hairline while washing your face at night.
Oily skin types tend to be more prone to blackheads. If you know you have an oily skin type, avoid touching your face with your hands. Pro tip: don’t forget to wipe off your phone, which accumulates dirt, oil, and bacteria, as it is often in contact with your face. Finally, a diet focused on good fats and oils, while minimizing bad oils, can also help.
Contrary to popular belief, hormonal fluctuations don’t actually trigger blackheads. Instead, hormonal induced acne breakouts are classified as inflammatory lesions, whereas a blackhead is a non-inflammatory lesion. Now that you know what really causes blackheads, it’s time to say goodbye to those pesky clogged pores!
How to Get Rid of Blackheads
Getting rid of pesky blackheads is never fun, but it’s important to know the right way to do it. Here are a few myths and tips that our Bore skincare experts want you to know about blackhead remedies and common misconceptions that do more harm than good:
Expert Tips for Getting Rid of Blackheads
Resist the urge to self-extract! DIY hardly works in this scenario. Palmer explains, “That deep down gunk easily lifts out with a pore strip, so there’s no squeezing involved.”
Don’t overdo it with your face-washing regimen. Palmer warns, “Over cleansing will strip your skin of moisture and irritate your skin. Keep it to twice-a-day.” Read our top tips on how to use cleanser to learn more on how to effectively wash your face.
Be gentle on your skin! Palmer cautions, “Excessively scrubbing your face will not get rid of blackheads since blackheads are normally deep-rooted.
Use pore strips as a first step for getting rid of blackheads. Pore strips work like a magnet by connecting to pore plugs and lifting out blackheads. Afterward, you’ll want to follow up with face wash and toner.
Over-The-Counter Treatments and Cleansers
These types of treatments are available without a prescription. OTC treatments come in numerous forms such as creams, gels, pads, and serums. Top treatments created to kill acne-causing bacteria and often contain ingredients such as Salicylic Acid, benzoyl peroxide, and resorcinol.
Doctors may suggest prescription medication when OTC products don’t work. Medications that contain vitamin A, AHAs, BHAs, and retinoid work to prevent pore plugs from forming in hair follicles and promote more rapid turnover of skin cells.
Professional Blackhead Removal
Dermatologists and estheticians can perform pore extractions to remove blackheads. They can also provide helpful tips and treatments to prevent clogged pores in the future.
Laser and Light Therapy
This treatment consists of tiny beams of light that decrease oil production and kill bacteria. Laser and light treatments reach below the skin’s surface to treat blackheads and acne without damaging the top layers of the skin. This treatment works best for inflammatory acne conditions and is typically not necessary for blackhead treatments so consult with your dermatologist to see if it would be a good option for you.
In this treatment, a chemical solution is applied to the skin. Over time, the top layers of the skin will peel off to reveal smoother, rejuvenated skin. While this treatment can be used for blackheads, it’s typically more effective for skin texture improvement.
This is a minimally abrasive treatment performed by dermatologists or skincare professionals with either micro particles or a diamond-tipped wand that buffs and polishes the superficial layer of dry dead skin cells, exposing softer, fresher skin. Bore Charcoal Pore Minimizer contains Alumina, a known micro-crystal exfoliate, that delivers immediate skin smoothing, texture refining and pore unclogging benefits after one application/use.
Pore strips instantly lift dirt and oil from your pores and are a better option than trying to remove blackheads by squeezing them with your fingers. When used weekly, pore strips can result in fewer clogged pores and improve the appearance of pores with continued use.
8 Tips From Dermatologists for Preventing Blackheads
Avoid self-extracting your blackheads. Bacteria and oil on your fingers can leave your skin inflamed and open to infection, which can lead to acne scarring and worsen your acne in the long run.
Avoid over-washing your face. When you over-wash, your body replenishes the stripped oils by overproducing sebum, which often makes blackheads worse.
Gently exfoliate your skin weekly to keep pores clean. Palmer explains, “This will remove the upper layer of skin cells, resulting in a brighter complexion and help prevent blackheads.”
Avoid wearing a lot of makeup. If you do, only use non-comedogenic makeup.
Use a warming clay mask. Face masks help melt and loosen impacted pore clogs, remove the buildup of dead skin cells from your face.
Wash your face twice a day. First when you wake up and again before you go to bed. This regimen helps remove oil build up from the day and night. Washing more than two times a day can irritate your skin and strip your face of its natural oils, causing an overproduction of oils, which leads to blackheads and clogged pores.
If you have oily skin, add Witch Hazel toner to your skincare routine to minimize pores and dry up excess oil. This toner should be applied after cleansing and before moisturizing.
Use oil-free lotions and sunscreen. Any products that contain oil can cause blackheads, so opt for non-comedogenic makeup, lotions, and sunscreen.