Updated: Sep 29, 2021
One of my most asked questions from my clients is how do I treat discoloration? From freckles to dark spots, sun damage, and more, we’ve seen it all here at BOHO and that is because pigmentation as a whole is one of the most common skin conditions in the world. Today, we are going to talk about the four different pigmentation types, what causes them, and how they can be treated! What is hyperpigmentation? Hyperpigmentation happens when melanin is overproduced in certain spots on the skin, causing discoloration in our skin complexion. Whenever our body feels like it’s in danger, we get discoloration, tan, post-inflammatory pigmentation as a form of defense mechanism. Understanding How Pigmentation is Formed First, we need to understand the Melanocyte. The Melanocyte lives in the basal layer of the skin and is responsible for making pigmentation. Converts an amino acid into tryonise which then gets converted in the melanin ( pigment) Think of the melanocyte as a factory that produces pigment, the skin utilizes melanocytes for protection. Then Keratinocytes are the trucks that deliver pigment to the upper layers of the skin. Our skin cells are constantly moving up to the surface of the skin. Dead proteins and melanin are constantly building up the surface of the skin. Common Causes of Pigmentation
Overexposure to the sun
Hormones changes from pregnancy or Menopause
Medications that cause liver damage
Medications that cause light sensitivity.
Picking your Acne
Types of Pigmentation There are 4 types of hyperpigmentation (an overproduction of pigment in the skin):
Melasma: Large dark brown patches that usually show up on the forehead, cheeks, or around the mouth.
Post-inflammatory Pigmentation (PIP): Smaller, individual dark spots ( spots can appear red, brown or dark brown) leftover from trauma to the skin. This could be a blemish, bug bite, cute, or scratch.
Age/Sun Spots: Flat spots ranging from light to dark brown in color. These are mainly caused by sun exposure over time.
Freckles: Small brown spots brought on during childhood—a genetic condition.
What Are The Best Ways To Get Rid Of Pigmentation? While you can get rid of pigmentation in some cases, it’s not always possible. Pigmentation is very complex and occurs so deeply within the skin that it can be really difficult to treat. The success of the treatment is based on an individual’s skin type and tolerance, and probably most importantly how dedicated they are to improving it and sticking to a regimen. What’s important to know is that even if you do get rid of your pigmentation completely, there’s a good chance you’ll have to continue a pigment brightening and preventing skincare regiment. as it can easily creep back up if you’re not staying on top of it due to pigmentation having memory. Treating Pigmentation With Skincare When Treating Pigmented Skin There Are A Couple Of Things You Have To Do.
Exfoliate – creating cellular turn over to slough off damaged surface skin cells
Treat – brightening and removing existing pigmentation
Prevent – using melanin suppressants
Protect – with SPF
Topical Pigment Inhibitors Look for products with ingredients that will block tyrosinase( Pigmentation). This will help interrupt signals being sent to melanocytes. These ingredients include mandelic acid, black Cohosh, arbutin, licorice extract, niacinamide and vitamin C serum Ingredients to avoid:
Hydroquinone- Hydroquinone is great at removing pigmentation, however it has a bad rebounding effect. Once you stop using this skin lightener, the pigmentation will come back darker than what the pigmentation was before you started using hydroquinone. Another side effect is that if used too long, you can develop ochronosis, a dark, blue-black pigmentation that is hard to get rid of. Kojic Acid- A skin lightening ingredient that commonly causes skin irritations. There are tons of great skin lightening ingredients that do not cause skin irritation that work just as good. Exfoliants Exfoliation is important because it helps lift visible pigmentation off the skin. For acids, I like mandelic ( super hero of skincare) or lactic. Fruit enzymes, such as papaya or pineapple, are also great options and are gentler than acids. Even though it isn’t technically an exfoliant, retinol/ vitamin A is also great for pigmentation because it increases cell turnover. Pigmentation will come to the surface (where it can be sloughed off by exfoliants) more quickly. I prefer enzymatic/ chemical based exfoliants. Physical exfoliants tend to be too harsh on the skin and will create broken capillaries.